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Commerce by a Frozen Sea

Native Americans and the European Fur Trade
50,49 €
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EAN / 13-stellige ISBN: 978-0812204827
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Commerce by a Frozen Sea is a cross-cultural study of a century of contact between North American native peoples and Europeans. During the eighteenth century, the natives of the Hudson Bay lowlands and their European trading partners were brought together by an increasingly popular trade in furs, destined for the hat and fur markets of Europe. Native Americans were the sole trappers of furs, which they traded to English and French merchants. The trade gave Native Americans access to new European technologies that were integrated into Indian lifeways. What emerges from this detailed exploration is a story of two equal partners involved in a mutually beneficial trade.

Drawing on more than seventy years of trade records from the archives of the Hudson's Bay Company, economic historians Ann M. Carlos and Frank D. Lewis critique and confront many of the myths commonly held about the nature and impact of commercial trade. Extensively documented are the ways in which natives transformed the trading environment and determined the range of goods offered to them. Natives were effective bargainers who demanded practical items such as firearms, kettles, and blankets as well as luxuries like cloth, jewelry, and tobacco-goods similar to those purchased by Europeans. Surprisingly little alcohol was traded. Indeed, Commerce by a Frozen Sea shows that natives were industrious people who achieved a standard of living above that of most workers in Europe. Although they later fell behind, the eighteenth century was, for Native Americans, a golden age.


By Ann M. Carlos and Frank D. Lewis


Introduction: Native Americans and Europeans in the Eighteenth-Century Fur Trade

1. Hats and the European Fur Market
2. The Hudson's Bay Company and the Organization of the Fur Trade
3. Indians as Consumers
4. The Decline of Beaver Populations
5. Industrious Indians
6. Property Rights, Depletion, and Survival
7. Indians and the Fur Trade: A Golden Age?

Epilogue. The Fur Trade and Economic Development

A. Fur Prices, Beaver Skins Traded, and the Simulated Beaver Population at Fort Albany, York Factory, and Fort Churchill, 1700-1763 189
B. Simulating the Beaver Population
C. A Model of Harvesting Large Game: Joint Ownership Versus Competition
D. Food and the Relative Incomes of Native Americans and English Workers



EAN / 13-stellige ISBN 978-0812204827
10-stellige ISBN 0812204824
Verlag University of Pennsylvania Press, Inc.
Imprint University of Pennsylvania Press
Sprache Englisch
Editionsform Non Books / PBS
Einbandart E-Book
Typ des digitalen Artikels ePub mit Adobe DRM
Copyright Digital Rights Management Adobe
Erscheinungsdatum 6. Juni 2011
Seitenzahl 272
Illustrationsbemerkung 25 illus.
Warengruppe des Lieferanten Geisteswissenschaften - Geschichte
Mehrwertsteuer 19%

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